Discovering if a child has problems with their hearing is important for development and education. Screening babies when they are born identifies most problems but hearing problems can start at any age. Many parts of the UK screen children for hearing problems when they start school but others have stopped doing this. We wanted to see whether having the screen was better or worse than not having it. We also wanted to see what was the best test to use. We compared the screening test that is most commonly used, the pure-tone screen (PTS) (Amplivox, Eynsham, UK), with a hand-held device, the HearCheck screener (Siemens, Frimley, UK), which might be quicker to use but has not been used in schools before.